The problems of food, energy, resources, environment and population that human beings currently face are closely related to agricultural production, and illumination is the primary factor affecting plant growth and development. Therefore, in-depth study of the demand characteristics, laws and The light control benchmark, innovative development of intelligent control fill light system suitable for agricultural lighting, providing an efficient lighting environment for agricultural lighting is an important task. With the increasing air pollution, the atmospheric transparency coefficient is declining, and the solar energy that plants can receive is less and less, which directly affects their growth and development. The use of supplemental light control technology in agricultural cultivation can improve the photosynthesis efficiency of crops, promote growth and reduce the use of pesticides, and facilitate the development of efficient and pollution-free modern agriculture. The development of modern production and management models such as facility agriculture, sightseeing agriculture, soilless cultivation and precision agriculture is a milestone in modern agricultural models.

1. Features and advantages

1.1 fill light features

Plants use sunlight for photosynthesis, and the visible light spectrum is 380-760 nm. The absorption peak region is red-orange light with wavelengths of 610-720 nm and blue-violet light of 400-510 nm. The continuous rainy weather affects the growth and development of plants, and the research and development of intelligent control of fill light will solve this problem. The development of agricultural planting technology that is not affected by the weather will become a new direction.

The main factors affecting the fill light in the greenhouse are light quality, light intensity and photoperiod. The photosynthesis of crops is suitable for the compensation of canopy light intensity of 1 000-3 000 lx, and various crops have specific requirements for red and blue light (R/B). In addition, the phenomenon of day and night alternating and recurring in nature has formed the requirements of photoperiod, and crops have adapted to this change in the long process of evolution. However, before and after the winter solstice or even cloudy days, natural light can not meet the growth and development needs of crops, it is necessary to increase the illumination time by artificial light supplement. In recent years, greenhouse fill light has become an important means of agricultural production.

1.2 Efficient intelligent system

A plant growth control system consisting of a control front end (smartphone, tablet or control platform), sensor (Sensor), fieldbus (Fieldbus) and LED lights is shown in Figure 1. Smartphones, tablets (embedded in Android or iOS operating systems) control the terminal through the Wi-Fi wireless connection control platform. The built-in dedicated communication module of the terminal connects up to 100 LED lights through ZigBee (any group can be set, the maximum distance between the lamps is 15 m) or single point access, and can also be used for sensors, oxygenation, watering and roller blinds. System control. The system uses sensors to monitor data such as ambient temperature, humidity, and pH of nutrient solution, collects it into the database through software, and instructs the fertilization irrigation system to perform precise fertilization irrigation on the plants in a timed, quantitative, and sub-section, and uses the sensor for system monitoring. According to plant growth requirements, LED lights are timed, switched, dimmed, and toned in a centralized manner, and plant growth and flowering cycles are regulated by Light recipes (LR).

For different application programs and places, LED fill light lighting products are available in a variety of varieties. Light bulbs, panel lights, floodlights, strips and light strips are typical LED applications in plant factories, combined with the application of intelligent control systems to make agricultural lighting systems more efficient and energy efficient.

1.3 Increase density and energy saving

LED lamps are cold light sources, and their radiation spectrum has little thermal effect on plants, which can achieve close-in fill of plants and avoid burns. In plant factories or tissue cultures, the distance between the cultivation shelf can be shortened, and the space utilization rate and the cultivation density of the plant unit space can be improved. The intelligent control fill light experiment in the greenhouse shows that the use of traditional light sources (high-pressure sodium lamps and metal halide lamps) requires a 0.5 kW light source per square meter, while the LED requires only 0.27 kW, which saves more than 50%.

In addition, the use of modern agricultural lighting technology innovations such as natural lighting, intelligent control of light environment, enhanced space management and mobile reflection utilization will effectively improve the efficiency of light energy utilization and meet the market demand for mass production or early inventory.

2, agricultural lighting applications

Through the introduction of new technologies to grow vegetables, fruits, flowers and seedlings, we have expanded into a series of precision agriculture models such as eco-restaurants and agricultural tourism, using a complete set of intelligent farming technology and management systems based on intelligent control. It is the vane of today's agricultural development.

2.1 Livestock and poultry farming

By studying the effects of red, blue and white light on the performance of poultry production, we introduced a smart chicken lighting system that controls the photoperiod, and realized the control of gradual poultry farming, and put it into use in chicken farms. The intelligent system controls the color temperature, light intensity and illumination duration according to specific indicators, observes its influence on the behavior, physiological characteristics and growth of livestock and poultry, and effectively promotes the production performance of livestock and poultry. Therefore, the lighting in the production of aquaculture requires not only Low energy consumption and long life, and should also have the controllability of LR. Figure 2 shows the application of fill light in livestock and poultry farming.

The study found that broiler chickens (AA broilers) were exposed to green or blue light in the early stage of growth, and blue light was used in the late growth stage to significantly promote their growth and development and improve production performance. If the green light is used in the early stage, the intestinal mucosal structure of the broiler chicken can be improved to different extents, and the ability of the small intestine to absorb nutrients can be improved. The research results can be used to improve the physiological index, feeding behavior, growth and reproductive performance of livestock and poultry, to promote the growth and production potential of livestock and poultry, and to improve the immunity of livestock and poultry.

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